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How to choose light-emitting diode (led) lamp

What is an led

 Led – это полупроводниковый элемент с электронно-дырочным переходом, генерирующий свет при прохождении электричества через него. Главным отличием светодиодного источника света от других ламп то, что в кристалле светодиода преобразование переменного тока в постоянный сопровождается minimal loss to heat.

 Это делает его максимально экономичным и безопасным. Светодиодные лампы не содержат вредных и токсичных материалов, в них отсутствует мерцание, и их свет практически не искажает естественные цвета окружающих предметов.

The choice for type of base

 Base – часть лампы контактирующая с электрической сетью. Существует две группы цоколей:
Pin - inserted into cartridge and are indicated by "G" the following characters(usually arithmetic) show the distance between the contacts of the lamp in mm
Screw - screwed into the cartridge and have a character representation "E" further specifies the diameter of the cap in mm(example: 27,14).

The most common standards caps led lamps:

E27 – наиболее распространенный вид цоколя с резьбой. В народе известный как «обычный» и используется во многих видах светильников и люстр. Часто лампы с данным цоколем обозначаются маркировкой А60, А55, R30 – где первый символ означает форму рассеивателя, а остальные его крайние габариты в мм
E14 – цоколь с маленьким диаметром. Лампы с таким цоколем называют «свеча» или «миньон»
GU5.3 – цоколь с двумя небольшими контактами. Лампы с таким цоколем заменяют аналогичные галогенные без дополнительных доработок светильников. Но перед покупкой для замены старых ламп – обратите внимание на размер источника света(MR16, MR11) и его вольтаж – 12В или 220В
GU10 – очень популярный и распространенный цоколь для точечных светильников, используемых для дополнительной или интерьерной подсветки
G4 – аналогичен предыдущему цоколю с разницей с меньшим расстоянием между контактами, которые похожи на две тонкие и длинные проволоки. Раньше использовались в светильниках для декоративной подсветки.
G13 – в основном используется в лампах типа «трубка»(стандарт Т8, Т5) для линейных или растровых светильников: офисные и промышленные светильники
G9 – не распространенный вид цоколя и редко используемый в новых светильниках

Choose LED lamps power

Once You have determined the type of the lamp needs to pick up its power. It is determined by two main parameters: the actual power is W(watts) and luminous flux, measured in LUMENS(lumen). We describe two simple ways of selection.

 The first method, when you want to replace existing light sources without changing the level of illumination of the object. To replace bulb — divide its capacity by 9 and get the power required led light bulbs. For discharge(housekeeper) — part two. But keep in mind the fact that cheap bulbs usually power by 20-40% lower than claimed by the manufacturer. The table below shows the correspondence between power led lamp and lamps of the previous generation.

Led bulbs watt Incandescent lamp watts Energy saving lamp, watt
 5  45  9
 7  60  12
 9  80  20
 12  100  25

 The second method - use experts to calculate the luminous flux for a particular room. It is based on the rules of light for different types of premises. Is measured in lumens(LM / lm) and is calculated by the formula: 

Luminous flux(LM) = N x S x K, where:
• N – норма освещенности конкретного помещения/объекта. Нормы указанны в таблице ниже и измеряются в Люкс на кв.м (1 Люкс=1 Люмен):

• S – площадь объекта, кв.м
• K – коэффициент для поправки на высоту от пола до светильника:
2,3 - 2,7 m K=1
2,7 - 3,0 m=1,2
3,0 - 3,5 m=1,5
3,5 - 4,5 m=2

the rules of lighting and objects

 *for a more accurate calculation of the resulting value will be multiplied by the coefficient of reflection of surfaces. It depends on the materials and their colors ("googling" and You'll find this data). But for a standard calculation, it is sufficient to use the us a simplified formula.

 The calculation results you will get the total luminous flux needed to illuminate your room. The number is divided by the number of lamps or other light sources which You intend to install. So you learn how light should have a led bulb or lamp. If the packaging or in the description no information about the luminous flux of a particular equipment, then a rough calculation can be guided by the following data 100LM = 1W мощности led лампы.

Color temperature

 The light bulb has different shades or color temperature. They are comparable with natural light at different times of the day. Cold light corresponds to the light on a cloudy afternoon, the warm color of the sunset etc. color Temperature is measured in Kelvin and will be identified by the marking of the symbol "K". Warm light is in the range of 2600-3200K, it is often chosen for living areas. Neutral white — 4000-4200K. Lamp with color temperature more than 6000 K are considered cool and are used primarily for commercial or industrial lighting.

The function of dimming (dimming)

 Most lamps are not dimmable lights with a special switch - dimmer. If You need lamp / lamp with the opportunity to work with this type of switches please note the availability of this feature. Usually the manufacturer indicates this information on the packaging (diminuita / not dummerweise). Most often in diminuem led lamps use a RC driver drawback which is invisible to the eye flicker.

The main advantages of led lamps

Savings. At the moment it is the most economical form of light for both household and industrial use.
Long-term operation. Service life of LED lamps is 30 000 - 50 000 hours at 100 000 inclusions. I should also add that the decrease in luminous flux(degradation) occurs very slowly and by the end of life quality diode loses not more than 30% of the initial brightness.
Security. Do not contain hazardous and toxic compounds. High-quality led lamps-equipped IC driver, no flicker, and in the spectrum of the led light bulb has no harmful UV rays.
Low working temperature. Heated to a temperature of not more than 60 degrees in contrast to incandescent lamps - more than 100 degrees discharge(housekeeper) - more than 80. So the risk of fire led bulb is significantly lower.
Mechanical strength. Led bulbs often are made from different types of

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